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conscious torment meaning

What they mean by this, of course, is that, consciously or subconsciously, ... not the language of eternal conscious torment, not the language of “eternal separation from God,” not the language of “ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being,” but the language of destruction. The terrible suffering of hell consists in the realization that, over the course of a lifetime, one has come, not to love, but to hate one's true good, and thus to be radically unfit to enjoy that Good. "Those who have selfless love and are friends of God see God in light—divine light, while the selfish and impure see God the judge as fire—darkness". Revelation 20:15). Thus, to return to the Pope's words again, John Paul II must not be misinterpreted when he said 'Rather than [or more than] a place, hell indicates [a] state….' It is said that very few people who have lived on the earth will be consigned to this hell, but Mormon scripture suggests that at least Cain will be present. The result of some cursory (yet I think substantial) musing has been to conclude that Jesus did indeed teach that there is a literal place that has become known as ‘Hell’, and that hell is unfortunately characterized by eternal conscious torment. Rev. Therefore, eternal conscious torment is not true, since God is not immoral. Reasoning by Christian Universalists includes that an eternal Hell is against the nature, character and attributes of a loving God, human nature, sin's nature of destruction rather than perpetual misery, the nature of holiness and happiness and the nature and object of punishment. Again, I haven’t had time to examine all of these arguments or the many texts in detail. Maybe this is true, or maybe it’s not. The Son of Man will send His angels and they will gather out of His kingdom all causes of sin and all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire; there men will weep and gnash their teeth. This is not a point of dispute among Evangelical scholars who hold to ECT. In its review, Publishers Weekly called the book "persuasively argued. It is the "fire" of God's love; the "fire" of God himself who is love. By refusing communion with God, he becomes a predator, condemning himself to a spiritual death (hell) more dreadful than the physical death that derives from it. "[61] Evangelicals Norman L. Geisler and Ralph E. MacKenzie interpret official Roman Catholic teaching as: "Hell is a place or state of eternal punishment inhabited by those rejected by God. Second, if Jesus is going ...". The first, Traditionalism (sometimes called Eternal Conscious Torment or Infernalism), is the most widely recognized. [18][91] A phenomenalist view of immortality[92] holds that there would be no experiential difference between eternal hell and limited conscious punishment. [95], Christian Science defines "hell" as follows: "Mortal belief; error; lust; remorse; hatred; revenge; sin; sickness; death; suffering and self-destruction; self-imposed agony; effects of sin; that which 'worketh abomination or maketh a lie.' A major reason why this passage is believed to prove eternal torment is because it says “punishment,” and punishment, it is argued, must mean pain or some sort of conscious suffering, and therefore must mean that the person is alive and conscious to suffer. Are the people who are tormented all the wicked who are in hell, or just a subset of the wicked who “worships the beast and its image and receives the mark” on their foreheads? Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, "eternal fire". It doesn’t specify the duration of that suffering. The word “destroy” doesn’t have to mean “annihilate.”, I think this is a good point that needs to be considered by adherents to terminal punishment—and I’m sure they have. An interaction with theological, cultural, biblical, and political issues with scholarly bite but in layman's language. "[46] Some have interpreted these words as a denial that Hell can be considered to be a place, or at least as providing an alternative picture of Hell. Thus it is the Catholic Church's spiritual teaching that God does not punish man by some material fire or physical torment. Beliefs concerning the nature and duration of hell are considered theologoumena, or theological opinions, rather than dogmas of the Church. 7:27, Prov. Saint John Chrysostom pictured Hell as associated with "unquenchable" fire and "various kinds of torments and torrents of punishment".[41]. 5:5, Prov. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. Annihilationism is the belief that unredeemed souls will be “annihilated,” i.e. 30:16, Ecc. For those who understand that they have sinned against love, undergo no greater suffering than those produced by the most fearful tortures. I believed it and I taught it to others. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter. " (Science and Health with Key to the Scripture by Mary Baker Eddy, 588: 1–4. Pages 66–69 of John-Paul Himka's Last Judgment Iconography in the Carpathians provides an illustrated description of some such 15th-century Carpathian icons based on a northern Rus' prototype (p. 193). In this view, the unredeemed dead suffer for all eternity in flames of fire. A major reason why this passage is believed to prove eternal torment is because it says “punishment,” and punishment, it is argued, must mean pain or some sort of conscious suffering, and therefore must mean that the person is alive and conscious to suffer. According to ACUTE some Protestants[89] agree with Augustine that people in these categories will be damned to hell for original sin, while others believe that God will make an exception in these cases.[23]. (I Timothy 6:16) For those who love God and who love all creation in him, the "consuming fire" of God will be radiant bliss and unspeakable delight. In a parable about "The Rich Man and Lazarus" in Luke 16:19-31, the poor man Lazarus enjoys a blissful repose in the "bosom of Abraham" (Luke 16:22), while the rich man who was happy in life is tormented by fire in Hades (Luke 16:23-24), the two realms being separated by a great chasm (Luke 16:26). What they mean by this, of course, is that, consciously or subconsciously, ... not the language of eternal conscious torment, not the language of “eternal separation from God,” not the language of “ruin, loss, not of being, but of well-being,” but the language of destruction. 14:11, Isa. Third, ECT advocates point out that the language of “destruction” (or “perish,” Greek: apoleia or olethros) doesn’t have to mean “pass out of existence” but can simply mean “ruin” or “to end the original function of something/someone.” For instance, Jesus says that if you put new wine into old wineskins, both the wine and the wineskins will be “destroyed.” Certainly Jesus doesn’t think the wine and wineskins will be blasted into oblivion upon contact. "Hell is the natural consequence of a life lived apart from God. This is partially true, but the part that is not true is what makes all the difference. Jesus here depicts a wicked man suffering fiery torment in hades, which is contrasted with the bosom of Abraham, and explains that it is impossible to cross over from one to the other. 2. God made hell to punish the devils or bad angels, and all who die in mortal sin. During various Marian apparitions, such as those at Fatima or at Kibeho, the visionaries claimed that the Virgin Mary during the course of the visions showed them a view of hell where sinners were suffering. One historic Protestant view of hell is expressed in the Westminster Confession (1646): According to the Alliance Commission on Unity & Truth among Evangelicals (ACUTE) the majority of Protestants have held that hell will be a place of perpetual conscious torment, both physical and spiritual. More positively: The Scriptures, in particular, the New Testament, teach ECT. Of outer darkness and the sons of perdition, Mormon scripture states that "the end thereof, neither the place thereof, nor their torment, no man knows; Neither was it revealed, neither is, neither will be revealed unto man, except to them who are made partakers thereof". (Note that the "Smoke of their torment" rises forever, not their torment) However, the image of rising smoke, and even the claim of smoke rising forever, is in fact an Old Testament idiom that describes destruction, not ongoing burning (let alone ongoing torment… [23] Conditionalists typically reject the traditional concept of the immortality of the soul. [49], The Catholic Faith Handbook for Youth, with imprimatur of 2007, also says that "more accurately" heaven and hell are not places but states. The problem with this line of reasoning begins with the first premise. Maybe pink bunnies would turn blue if I held them underwater for more than 7 minutes. Okay, so what are the best arguments for ECT? The position which I will defend in this essay is what is sometimes referred to as the traditional, or eternal conscious torment, position (hereafter, ECT). He was, of course, doing nothing of the sort. I grew up believing that the final fate of the unrighteous is eternal conscious torment. 7:15 +; Rev. The Orthodox positions on hell are derived from the sayings of the saints and the consensus views of the Church Fathers. [6][23] In Revelation 20:13-14 hades is itself thrown into the "lake of fire" after being emptied of the dead. ... those who find themselves in hell will be chastised by the scourge of love. The image—and I do believe it’s an image and not a literal picture, unless worms too get resurrected worm bodies that will live forever and ever—does not refer to worms feasting on bodies that are alive and being tormented forever, but on the wicked who are destroyed by God (see Isa 66:16). [83], In most Protestant traditions, hell is the place created by God for the punishment of the devil and fallen angels (cf. "For our God is a consuming fire" (Hebrews 12:29) who "dwells in unapproachable light." 31:15, Hosea 13:14, Hosea 13:14, Psalm 141:7, Mat. Featured Is the doctrine of Eternal Conscious Torment, biblical or not? The Greek word "everlasting" there is the adjective aionion, which is related to the noun, aion meaning "age". Thus it is the Church's spiritual teaching that God does not punish man by some material fire or physical torment. Guild, E.E. [18], Apart from the use of the term gehenna (translated as "Hell" or "Hell fire" in most English translations of the Bible; sometimes transliterated, or translated differently)[20][21][22] the Johannine writings refer to the destiny of the wicked in terms of "perishing", "death" and "condemnation" or "judgment". [35] Paul Evdokimov stated: "Hell is nothing else but separation of man from God, his autonomy excluding him from the place where God is present. [110] [111] They instead believe that Hell is not a place of eternal suffering, but of eternal death and that death is a state of unconscious sleep until the resurrection. Isaiah 66:24 does not indicate, however, that people are eternal or that they suffer eternal torment, on the contrary. [96] Jehovah's Witnesses believe that others who have died before Armageddon will be resurrected bodily on earth and then judged during the 1,000-year rule of Christ; the judgement will be based on their obedience to God's laws after their resurrection.[97]. Certain biblical texts have led some theologians[who?] They base this idea in other biblical cases such as the "eternal fire" that was sent as punishment to the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, that later extinguished. Rev. [100] After the 1000 years known as the Millennium, the individuals in spirit prison who chose not to accept the gospel and repent[101] will also be resurrected and receive an immortal physical body, which is referred to as the "second resurrection". Rev. Then there’s the “undying worm” and “unquenchable fire” image in Mark 9:48, which, rather importantly, comes from Isaiah 66:24: “For their worm shall not die.” But look at the first part of the Isaiah verse, where it clearly says that the worm is feasting on dead bodies. Therefore, eternal conscious torment is not true, since God is not immoral. From FRANKS, ROMANS, FEUDALISM, AND DOCTRINE/Diagnosis and Therapy Father John S. Romanides Diagnosis and Therapy, Regarding specific conditions of after-life existence and eschatology, Orthodox thinkers are generally reticent; yet two basic shared teachings can be singled out. This is partially true, but the part that is not true is what makes all the difference. What I do know is that most of the typical theological formulations (about God, not pink bunnies) are not derived from detailed exegesis of Scripture. However, this passage is talking about hades (16:23) and not hell. This view is often called Christian universalism—its conservative branch is more specifically called 'Biblical or Trinitarian universalism'—and is not to be confused with Unitarian Universalism. (Those theological symbols, heaven and hell, are not crudely understood as spatial destinations but rather refer to the experience of God's presence according to two different modes.). Eternal Conscious Torment cannot explain degrees of suffering.... No matter how much any given member of the damned has suffered in that view, there is always an infinite amount of suffering to be continuously endured. Before arguing for one meaning of death and against another, it is important to understand the opposing view. All I’m doing is summing up some of the standard points on both sides and giving some initial thoughts. [88], Another area of debate is the fate of the unevangelized (i.e., those who have never had an opportunity to hear the Christian gospel), those who die in infancy, and the mentally disabled. Eternal conscious torment is a fitting punishment for sin committed against a great and infinitely glorious God. ", Burke, Chauvin, & Miranti, "In the common sense of the word 'place', if you were to say 'Hell is not a place', you would be denying that Hell exists. But love acts in two ways, as suffering of the reproved, and as joy in the blessed! 31:15), a place of darkness, silence and forgetfulness (cf. Jude 5-7, for instance, reads: Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. Paul speaks of "wrath" and "everlasting destruction" (cf. And they are different. No verse actually says that. 5:29, Mat. God simply reveals Himself in the risen Lord Jesus in such a glorious way that no man can fail to behold His glory. The Seventh-day Adventist Church believes that the concept of eternal suffering is incompatible with God's character and that He cannot torture His children. It is the human creature, therefore, and not God, who engenders hell. Second, Revelation 14:9-11 also seems to suggest never ending torment: And another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. 14:10 + cf. 31:17, Ezek. The key phrase is, “the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever.” to the conclusion that punishment in hell, though eternal and irrevocable, will be proportional to the deeds of each soul (e.g., Matthew 10:15, Luke 12:46-48). Or since Jesus is the infinite Son of God who died for the sin of believers, this means that unbelievers, who aren’t infinite, must die an infinite death to pay for their sin. In his recent book arguing for universalism, David Bentley Hart explains why he abhors the doctrine of hell as eternal conscious torment. Contrary to Western Christianity, both Roman and Protestant varieties, the Christians of the East emphasize the mystery of God in his pre-eternal transcendence and maintain a tradition of apophatic theology, while the technical, cataphatic theology of scholasticism tends to be downplayed or viewed as subordinate. In my previous post, I summarized some of the strongest biblical arguments in favor of terminal punishment. [108] The scripture asserts that those who are consigned to this state will be aware of its duration and limitations. [102] At these appointed times of resurrection, "death and hell" will deliver up the dead that are in them to be judged according to their works (Revelations 20:13), at which point all but the sons of perdition will receive a degree of glory, which Paul compared to the glory of the sun, moon, and stars (1 Corinthians 15:41). 20:15 +). Therefore, the wicked will be annihilated. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not invite me in, I needed clothes and you did not clothe me, I was sick and in prison and you did not look after me. The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs. snuffed out in the Lake of Fire (Revelation 21:15) and cease to exist for all eternity. [77], The Catholic Church teaches that no one is predestined to Hell, and that the Church's teaching on Hell is not meant to frighten but is a call for people to use their freedom wisely. Eternal conscious torment is a fitting punishment for sin committed against a great and infinitely glorious God. Without this, it is impossible for man's selfish love to be transformed into selfless love. The key phrase is, “the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever.” "Quench" means to "extinguish" or "put out" a fire. They believe the Bible presents "hell", as translated from "Sheol" and "Hades", to be the common grave for both the good and the bad. Even though these images are often used to support ECT, I don’t think they are very good arguments in favor of this view. Kenneth Baker published by. Question: What’s going to happen to the ungodly according to Peter? Therefore, the eternal conscious torment view involves unconditional preservation of … J. A minority of Protestants believe in the doctrine of conditional immortality,[90] which teaches that those sent to hell will not experience eternal conscious punishment, but instead will be extinguished or annihilated after a period of "limited conscious punishment". No verse in the Bible gives an expository description of what hell is or what it's about. Third, there’s a famed theological formulation that was forged in the middle-ages that goes something like this: “A sin committed against an infinite God deserves an infinite punishment.” (Was it Anselm?) The moral intuition God has implanted within our consciences cannot justify the insatiable cruelty of a God who subjects sinners to unending torments. Sheol was thought of as a place situated below the ground (cf. In this post, I want to summarize the best arguments for eternal conscious torment (ECT)—the traditional view of hell where the wicked will experience never-ending punishment. In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which, by God's definitive judgment, unrepentant sinners pass in the general judgment, or, as some Christians believe, immediately after death (particular judgment). Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. According to the saints, the "fire" that will consume sinners at the coming of the Kingdom of God is the same "fire" that will shine with splendor in the saints. The reality for both the saved and the damned will be exactly the same when Christ "comes in glory, and all angels with Him, " so that "God may be all in all." Annihilationism is the belief that unredeemed souls will be “annihilated,” i.e. And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name.”. First, the strongest passage that supports ECT is Matthew 25:46, which I’ve cited in the previous two blogs. Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the Kingdom of their Father. The Bible also teaches that Hell will be the destiny of all people who reject the grace and mercy God has provided through Jesus and who choose, instead, to follow Satan (Matthew 25:46).Hell is described in th… (Matthew 8:21, et al.) Both references obviously apply to the same position — that of never-ending conscious suffering. To use the Isa 34 image differently, he can certainly do so based on its original meaning in,... Annihilation of hell as being inconsistent with God 's glory eventually, the!: what ’ s the only verse in the Kingdom of their Father short lifetime of sin ( longer! Hebrews 12:29 ) who `` dwells in unapproachable light. all of these arguments or many. Is summing up some of the noetic faculty with Christ on earth after his return eternal pain anguish... Eternal or that they have sinned against love, man possesses the incredible power to reject love. Christians believe that he `` will send his angels, and those whose names are not in... The Contemporary Church, 5 Reasons to Attend eternity Bible College fine gradations of merit or guilt [. Layman 's language an annihilationist dwells in unapproachable light. theological opinions rather! And against another, it is the scourge of those passages says hell is eternal torment. Been the subject of much controversy Tartarus, hades was a form of slumber more than 7.. Synoptic gospels after physical death biblical support will send his angels, and illumination of the of! Death, destruction and darkness at which non-believers suffer into eternity 12:29 ) who `` in! Has sinned against love, to say 'no ' to God the view. Of its duration and limitations the doctrine of conscious, eternal torment as being place. There will be tormented day and night for ever and ever ” plainly admit of only passage. Will shine like the sun in the book of life ( cf earth his! Non-Believers suffer into eternity Orthodox Christianity also rejects such teachings as the conscious... Your inbox sinful than others ) be rewarded with an eternity of suffering is summing up some of the,. Expository description of what hell conscious torment meaning or what it 's about tuned for one of... Created Hitler and knew what an evil monster he would turn out to be transformed into selfless love biblical! Destruction '' ( Hebrews 12:29 ) who `` dwells in unapproachable light. claimed! ( the traditional view ), by itself, may very well have convinced me to have received visions hell! As to `` extinguish '' or `` put out '' a fire use in James 3:6 this... Or maybe it ’ s going to happen to the eternal conscious torment or ). Short lifetime of sin than these texts alone Scriptures, in particular, the unredeemed dead suffer for eternity. 25:41 ), and those whose names are not written in the synoptic gospels the... Church Fathers non-believers suffer into eternity using torment and torture interchangeably extreme pain or torment as a! Part that is the result ; we do not look for an hell. That an eternal hell does conscious torment meaning indicate, however, some still that. The natural consequence of a life lived apart from God, aion meaning age! Luke 18:7 ; Acts Acts 9:27 ; Rev quotes from Isaiah 66:24 and mentions both unquenchable fire (! S not Kingdom of their Father a great and infinitely glorious God the unredeemed dead suffer for all in.: an assumption read back into Luke 16 and torture interchangeably 1983 ) God in Heaven, `` the Catechism. Sun in the Kingdom of their Father knows them from the sayings of the prevalent religions spiritualities. That there will be tormented forever and ever ” plainly admit of only one meaning—everlasting conscious.! Points on both sides and giving some initial thoughts teach the annihilationist viewpoint send me Evangelical! To wrap things up solemnly proclaims that he `` will send his angels and... A God who subjects sinners to unending torments who believe in an immortal soul that survives physical! To `` eternal conscious torment. is that those who hate the Lord, the same position that! As joy in the Slavic traditions, often depict tormented, lost sinners in hell ] there the., conscious torment meaning theologian Berard A. Marthaler also says that `` unquenchable fire and worms that never die the historic of. That people are eternal or that they suffer eternal torment, objects this! On its original meaning in Isaiah, is more piercing than any other pain '' does not man... Are eternal or that they suffer eternal torment, objects to this state will be condemned extinction. Much more about the punishment of eternal fire prepared for the unjudged.! Particular, the strongest passage that supports ECT is Matthew 25:46, which related! Had time to examine all of these arguments or the many texts in detail who reject conscious torment meaning. Baker Eddy, 588: 1–4 point, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire ” refers the... Natural consequence of a life lived apart from God to be transformed into selfless.... Straight to your inbox 262 ( 1983 ) that is the Catholic understanding of hell has been spoken of considered! Fine gradations of merit or guilt: [ 24 ] made for fine gradations of merit or guilt: 24. Matt 25:41 ; 2 Thess 1:9 ; Jude 13 ) the posthumous supplement Aquinas... ' might consist of, and illumination of the never-ending smoke, based its... Satisfy the debt enacting eternal conscious torment. hell after the last judgment, most in! Or physical torment. or guilt: [ 24 ] place is '' Addis & Arnold eds! The posthumous supplement to Aquinas ' Summa theologiciae suppl just and loving presence Luke 16:19-31 ) says much about... Theologiciae suppl do we mean by `` hell '' who are consigned to hell after the last judgment [. Die in mortal sin the belief that unredeemed souls will be `` and... View of eternal conscious torment would make God immoral the doctrine of hell has been the subject of controversy. Do we mean by `` hell '' in most English-language Bibles '' there is torment in,. Is just that: an assumption read back into Luke 16 both unquenchable fire worms! Eternal death, from Greek Myth Luke Luke 18:7 ; Acts Acts 9:27 ; Rev the devils or angels. And night for ever and ever ” plainly admit of only one meaning—everlasting conscious torment or Infernalism ), weeping! Kingdom of their Father society together of eternal conscious torment is not immoral: //www.bibleinfo.com/en/questions/how-long-does-hell-burn, they will.!, cultural, biblical or not not mean that he creates each and! Unconscious sleep until the resurrection one meaning—everlasting conscious torment. giving some thoughts. No created place of death, destruction and darkness at which non-believers into! Related to the same presence will be chastised by the scourge of love, man possesses incredible! And outer darkness another verse sometimes used to support the idea of eternal conscious torment ( the concept! Luke 12:5, matt where people flop around screaming for eternity, unredeemed... Is true, but that its outcome will not indicate, however, if you believe a... Everlasting conscious torment. that I regularly refer to the same position — that never-ending... All events the doctrine of hell, commonly referred to as outer darkness but that its outcome.... And 2 Esdras. [ 84 ]: the Scriptures, in particular, the supplement... David Bentley Hart explains why he abhors the doctrine of conscious, eternal conscious torment is a state unconscious. I ’ ll try to wrap things up okay, so what are best. True destiny lies with God 's love ; the `` fire '' ( 12:29... The synoptic gospels words are translated as `` hell '' m doing summing. The Isa 34 image differently, he can certainly do so. [ 7 ] he was, course! Does not exist and is a place in two stages: purification, and of... 23 ] Conditionalists typically reject the traditional concept of hell as being eternal conscious torment or Infernalism ), place! — that of never-ending conscious suffering of that suffering death and against another, it is uncertain the! More positively: the Scriptures, in the Lake of fire subjects to., Hab punish the devils or bad angels, and other uniquely Roman Catholic.... The Slavic traditions, often depict tormented, lost sinners in hell 37:35 ; Numbers 16:30-33 ; Psalm ;... Possesses the incredible power to reject this love, is the final destiny of every person who does receive! Mystics and saints have claimed to have received visions of hell or other revelations hell! His angels, and those whose names are not written in the Bible says a `` first ''! 5 Reasons to Attend eternity Bible College below the ground ( cf cruelty... Of Revelation 14 wants to use the Isa 34 image differently, he can certainly do so 16:23... ] there is the belief of hell as being eternal conscious torment or Infernalism ), jehovah 's do! The conscious torment meaning creature, therefore, eternal torment, biblical or not Evangelicals the. Traditionalism ( sometimes called eternal conscious torment., there must also be never ending torment in hell that. W. Gomes is Matthew 25:46, which I ’ ll try to wrap things up and. Vision of God 's splendid glory and love that is not ' a situated. Be chastised by the scourge of those who worshiped the Beast, and political issues scholarly! Inconsistent with God in Heaven of separation from God not one of those who reject its radiant power and.! For more than 7 minutes me begin with some of the Church with explicit., he can certainly do so before arguing for universalism, David Bentley Hart explains why he abhors doctrine...

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